New PDF release: A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise consultant on deciding on and measuring skinny movie thickness through optical methods.
This functional e-book covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness size, and smooth purposes. In so doing, it indicates the services and possibilities of optical thickness decision and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units besides their review methods.
Following an advent to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and subject. the most subject of this booklet, the selection of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack via measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is taken care of within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous business functions of the layer thickness dimension, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive movies, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands thinking about all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie size and metrology, method keep watch over, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical size (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness choice (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 functions (pages 149–185):
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
It was originally developed by Erich Schott in 1966 at SCHOTT AG. He was the son of the famous Otto Schott who founded the Schott & Associates Glass Technology Laboratory, together with Ernst Abbe and Carl Zeiss, the owner of an optical workshop, and his son Roderich Zeiss in 1884. This formula was used by SCHOTTAG up to 1992 and then replaced by a threeterm Sellmeier formula. The general form is N M X X n2 ¼ Aj l2j þ Bk lÀ2k : ð2:120Þ j¼0 k¼1 The original Schott formula is obtained for N ¼ 1 and M ¼ 4.
The grating period is then g ¼ a þ b. The refractive index of the medium in front of the grating may have the refractive index n. Usually, it is ambient air with n ¼ 1. 16 Scheme of a reflection grating with surface relief profile (lamellar grating). j31 j 2 Propagation of Light and Other Electromagnetic Waves 32 additional phase shift exp(i2knd) due to the fact that they pass the grooves twice compared to the waves reﬂected at the top surface of the grating. Therefore, we have for the magnitude of electric ﬁeld of the wave diffracted into the diffraction angle b 8 9 að þb ðb < = EðbÞ ¼ E0 Á GF Á expði2kndÞ expðikx sinðbÞÞdx þ expðikx sinðbÞÞdx ; : ; 0 b ð2:76Þ where the abbreviation GF is again the grating function.
38]. At lower wavelengths, the contribution of interband transitions from the 5d electrons to the hybridized 6sp band has an enormous inﬂuence on the dielectric function. They cause the reﬂectance of a gold mirror to be only about 40% at wavelengths below 460 nm. Then, a steep increase follows in the range from 460 to 580 nm to values of R > 90%. In the following spectral range, the reﬂectance still increases to values R > 97% in the considered wavelength range. 27 (a) Dielectric function of Al.
A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten