Download e-book for iPad: An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement: Using the GUM by L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel

Measurements

By L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel

ISBN-10: 0521844282

ISBN-13: 9780521844284

Dimension shapes clinical theories, characterises advancements in production procedures and promotes effective trade. In live performance with dimension is uncertainty, and scholars in technology and engineering have to establish and quantify uncertainties within the measurements they make. This e-book introduces dimension and uncertainty to moment and 3rd yr scholars of technological know-how and engineering. Its procedure is dependent upon the across the world known and advised directions for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known by way of the acronym GUM). The statistics underpinning the tools are thought of and labored examples and routines are unfold during the textual content. unique case experiences in accordance with regular undergraduate experiments are incorporated to augment the foundations defined within the e-book. This advisor is usually important to pros in who're anticipated to understand the modern equipment during this more and more very important sector. extra on-line assets can be found to aid the publication at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.

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Example text

Unlike random errors, such systematic errors cannot be reduced by repeating the measurements and taking their mean; they resist statistical attack. 1) might consistently – but unknown to us – have an offset, so that it indicates 1 µV too high no matter how many measurements we make. This systematic error will then be transferred to the value of voltage that we finally calculate for the voltage source. 1, to be less susceptible to the effect of an offset. 1 left or right or up or down, but will not affect its slope.

For example, the realisation of the metre is accomplished using a laser whose light has a precise frequency, f , that 2 3 The kilogram may eventually be defined in terms of natural constants. One method would be to define it as the mass of a specified number of atoms of a particular isotope of an element. There is considerable progress along this route, which involves the fabrication of very accurate spheres of pure silicon of accurately known diameter. The lattice spacing of silicon atoms in this structure is well known (from X-ray-crystallographic measurements) and, since the volume is also well known (given the diameter and the accurate sphericity), the number of atoms can in principle be counted.

65 V in recognition of the fact that the last three figures in the display were unreliable and of little use. 65 V are values expressed to three significant figures. The fact that a statistical analysis was not carried out in order to assess the uncertainty in the value5 means that to a certain extent the rounding to three significant figures was arbitrary and represents the experimenter exercising ‘common sense’. When experimental values with varying numbers of significant figures are brought together, there are several simple rules that allow us to quote answers to a defensible number of significant figures.

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An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement: Using the GUM by L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel


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